Encapsulated in CPUs, GPUs, RAM and Flash: types and uses

It will not be potential to control a chip as is, they’re too fragile and delicate, therefore the necessity to place these in what we name an encapsulation, to forestall them from deteriorating shortly and that their manipulation on our half finally ends up breaking them.

What is the encapsulation of a chip?

Processors

You are putting in a CPU on the motherboard of your PC, however what you maintain between your fingers will not be the processor itself, however the encapsulation that covers the processor itself, which is liable for defending it. Each and each one of many processors in the marketplace is packaged and used in varied types and sizes.

The first differential level is the scale, in strange PCs a lot of the packages are fabricated from plastic, however there are purposes in which it’s obligatory to make use of a ceramic bundle and even particular alloys. For instance, the probes and autos despatched by area businesses make use of encapsulations that shield in opposition to particular radiation. We even have the case of pc processors on board vehicles, which have to have the ability to face up to the excessive temperatures close to the engine.

Chips packaging machine

The encapsulation is a part of the manufacturing technique of a processor, that’s the reason relying on the goal utility of the CPU we are going to see how one kind of encapsulation or one other is used, affecting its remaining value. Its utility could be very easy, the chips are extremely delicate parts to the inclemency of the surroundings and that’s the reason it’s obligatory to guard them since they’ve been manufactured.

Next we depart you the types of encapsulation most used when manufacturing the completely different chips which might be in the marketplace, there will not be all which might be obtainable, since this kind has an enormous quantity of variations relying on the variety of pins, materials used, and many others. That is why we’ve got decreased them to probably the most fundamental.

Ball Grid Array (BGA)

The Ball Grid Array is the kind of encapsulation most used in {hardware} right this moment, since it’s used in the RAM reminiscence chips that we see in the completely different types of DIMM modules, in the VRAM that’s mounted on the graphics playing cards, as nicely such because the GPU mounted on the graphics card. This kind of encapsulation is used for elements that don’t require particular person person alternative as a result of they are going to be totally welded all through their helpful life to a plate immediately.

In the case of a BGA, the pins of the bundle are positioned in a matrix on the backside, these pins join with the processor that’s contained in the bundle, therefore the title of Grid Array. For mounting the pins are immediately soldered on the PC, forming balls through the course of.

PoP Encapsulation (Package on Package)

PoP encapsulation

PoP kind bundle is a sort of bundle in which two BGA packages are positioned vertically on prime of one another and have some type of interconnection between them. It is to not be confused with the 3DIC the place two chips are stacked on prime of one another, we make clear this to keep away from confusion.

SiP Encapsulation (System in Package)

SiP encapsulation

The SiP kind bundle is used when we’ve got a number of elements mounted on the identical PCB collectively, that’s, once we discuss MCM configurations in which there are a number of processors and / or reminiscences on separate chips. It is the kind of packaging most used in smartphones the place the LPDDR reminiscence in sure designs is positioned contained in the processor.

We even have examples of using SiP packaging in the world of PC {hardware} the place it’s used in AMD Ryzen composed of chiplets or GPUs that make use of HBM2 reminiscence.

Pin Grid Array (PGA)

The Pin Grid Array is the widespread one amongst CPUs, since as an alternative of soldering the processor to the board or PCB, it’s related to a socket the place the completely different pins match into the holes in the socket that serves to make reference to them. The benefit of the PGAs is that it’s potential to utterly extract them from the board to which they’re related, permitting their subsequent replace, therefore we are able to replace the CPUs of 1 PC for an additional whereas sustaining the identical kind of socket.

Therefore, every socket corresponds to a sort of PGA packaging, once they inform us for instance that an Intel CPU makes use of an LGA1200 socket, in actuality they’re telling us the kind of PGA bundle in which Intel or AMD have manufactured a technology particular CPUs.

As a curiosity, the PGA can be used in the prototyping of sure designs, the place a PGA model is manufactured for a selected socket, so those that are testing the brand new chips don’t have to solder them to carry out the purposeful assessments.