Input and output ports on the PC: types, uses and characteristics

One of the characteristics that outline the PC above different platforms is its expandability. Thanks to its ports of entry and exit. Which can help you join every kind of elements and peripherals.

General characteristics of the inlet and outlet ports

Parallel port

The I / O ports are communication ports, that are liable for transmitting a collection of knowledge between two ends, all of them have the following characteristics:

  • A clock: This sign marks how typically a knowledge switch is made.
  • Data pins: The pins that transmit the info from one facet to the different, there are reception pins, sending pins and Full Duplex that enable the knowledge to go a method or the different. If there are a number of knowledge pins on the port interface we are going to say that it’s a parallel port, if there are few pins then we are going to say that it’s a serial port.

It ought to be clarified that the reality {that a} port is serial doesn’t imply in any respect that it’s slower, since the quantity of knowledge that’s despatched and / or obtained will rely on their clock pace. The I / O interfaces in addition to the remainder of the logic in the processors have developed over time and what, for instance, was beforehand attainable solely with large parallel ports, has reached the level that grew to become attainable with serial ports .

Ports of entry and exit used right this moment

PC Gaming

These ports are what you’ll find on PCs and motherboards which can be offered right this moment.

USB enter and output ports

USB I / O ports

USB ports are the absolute commonplace for enter and output ports, as they’re utilized by a mess of peripherals. Its origin, nevertheless, is exterior the PC, since this can be a model tailored to the PC and up to date on the SIO port of Atari 8-bit computer systems. The SIO port served to keep away from having to place a complete laptop in its floppy drives because it occurred in different 8-bit computer systems.

The USB commonplace appeared in the late 90s with the intention of changing varied ports on the PC, corresponding to the Centronics or LPT1 port, the COM port, and the PS / 2 ports. A objective that took years to attain because of the proliferation of peripherals with these interfaces. Its first model had a switch pace of solely 11 Mbps, its model 2.Zero improved to 480 Mbps and it additionally grew to become an excellent port for video transmission, thus retiring the IEEE-1394 or FireWire. As for its model 3.0, it permits knowledge switch at the pace of a SATA port.

USB is available in many kinds, however the latest is USB-C which not solely permits quick charging of peripherals and even total computer systems. But additionally perform as a DisplayPort. Seeing its historical past it’s clear that the time period Universal has it greater than deserved.

HDMI video output ports

The HDMI port is the absolute video commonplace in televisions, it’s a sophisticated model of the already deserted DVI port however together with the capacity to transmit sound and playback of content material in excessive definition with copyright safety methods. HDCP. It first appeared when part cable was discovered to not present sufficient bandwidth for Full HD and each Blu-ray and streaming content material wanted some technique of anti-piracy management.

Today it has been evolving when it comes to its capabilities and bandwidth, permitting the transmission of 8K video and refresh charges past the basic 60 Hz.

DisplayPort video output ports


The different video output port is DisplayPort, however whereas HDMI is a normal for tv producers, DisplayPort is extra geared in direction of the laptop market, so this port is never discovered on televisions. Like HDMI it has had a number of variations, however it’s extra supposed to be used in a pc, because of issues corresponding to the indisputable fact that it helps a better variety of resolutions in its commonplace in comparison with HDMI and is designed for the use of a number of screens.

RJ45 or Ethernet ports

RJ45 I / O ports

The Ethernet port of a lifetime, which permits us to attach at excessive speeds with our PC to the community, which can’t be reached by any kind of wi-fi commonplace. Its permanence is due to its evolution the place if years in the past we talked about 100 Mbps connections, right this moment we have already got 10,000 Mbps or 10 Gbps interfaces.

3.5mm mini jack and TRS connectors

Audio minijack ports

It is the port for connecting audio system and microphone par excellence. The connector has 2 variants, the first one helps mini-jack connections with 2 rings wherein every ring corresponds to a stereo channel, a 3rd ring signifies that the microphone can be utilized. Although there are methods that separate enter and output in two completely different interfaces.

A variant of this sort of connection is the TRS connectors, which permit a number of audio system to be related in a positional system. Of course, with the limitations in bandwidth and sound high quality

S / PDIF ports for digital audio

Ports Input Output SPDIF

When DVD grew to become well-liked, so did DOLBY Digital, which was the first really positional system and subsequently required a lot larger bandwidth. The resolution? The S / PDIF or SONY / Phillips Digital Interface Format port. Which transmits audio in digital format by way of a coaxial cable in a single port.

Advanced multi-speaker methods corresponding to 7.1 make use of these kinds of connectors. Which are significantly better than TRS. Not just for not needing so many cables, however for delivering larger sound high quality due to the larger bandwidth.

PCI Express ports

PCI Express

The PCI Express slots are the place we join our graphics playing cards and M.2 NVMe disks right this moment, in addition to different peripherals though much less used require this port. Designed as a successor to the AGP and the basic PCI, it’s a commonplace that appeared in the mid-2000s and has developed till now, the place model 4.Zero is already on the market, model 5.Zero is on the ramp of launch and 6.Zero has already completed its design. Each technology doubles the bandwidth for communication,

Its peculiarity in comparison with different I / O ports is that it inherits from AGP the capacity to entry the RAM of the system immediately. Of course, with the corresponding management mechanisms. This is vital for CPU-GPU communication and to have the ability to copy knowledge extra effectively from an NVMe SSD.

Ports of entry and exit which have ceased to exist

Old PC turbo button

These ports are hardly seen on the PC anymore, being changed by ports that do the identical job however with larger efficiency, higher consumption or each. Although we will see them utilized in some motherboards right this moment.

RS-232 or DB9 port

COM I / O ports

This port was used to speak {hardware} in the period of mini-computers. Especially the terminals. It was adopted by the PC in the early years being the I / O port par excellence of peripherals corresponding to keyboards, mice, modems and a protracted etcetera.

First it was changed in use by the PS / 2 port when it comes to mice and keyboards, high-speed modems started to make use of extra superior ports corresponding to ISA and little by little it was ending in disuse till being retired by USB. When that occurred it was one in all the most ineffective elements on a PC.

Centronics ports

Centronics Inlet Outlet Ports

The well-known printer port, a parallel port that first appeared on IBM’s MDA graphics playing cards and later grew to become a part of the motherboard. It was withdrawn from the market as quickly as the USB port appeared and it grew to become so sluggish that it despaired. It is a 36-pin parallel port that was initially designed for printers and scanners.

Ports Inlet Outlet Parallel

Over time the Centronics port was changed by the parallel port or DE9 port, which is a parallel model of the DB9 port, so it’s primarily based on the RS-232 commonplace. Since each are often called printer ports, they was confused, that’s the reason we’ve got grouped them in the identical part.

VGA port

VGA Input and Output Ports

The VGA port was the quintessential commonplace for CRT PC shows, and it managed to reside for nearly 20 years, however it proved incapable of displaying good picture high quality on an LCD display screen, so it was shortly outdated by requirements corresponding to DVI. HDMI and DisplayPort.

The VGA port is said to CRT screens, however has additionally been utilized in projectors. Its disappearance is because of the enhance in the use of digital video, which is significantly better understood with LCD panels, which by taking over much less house ended up changing televisions and screens with analog indicators.

DVI port

DVI connectors differences

The DVI port was an try by VESA previous to DisplayPort to launch a successor to VGA. In actuality, HDMI derives from this port, with the distinction that DVI doesn’t assist HDCP content material, it doesn’t transmit audio and it didn’t evolve as HDMI has developed. You can see it on televisions and screens from the second half of the 2000s.

The DVI commonplace had Three several types of connections, DVI-I may transmit indicators in analog and digital, DVI-D solely in digital and DVI-A solely in analog. Each one with a unique pin configuration. These variations not present in both HDMI or DisplayPort had been one in all the the reason why DVI did not have an extended run.