What is a hacker, what types are there and how does it differ from a cracker

Over time, tv, information or motion pictures have created an idealized determine round these pirates. If you ask us, we’ll at all times match this profile to that of a cyber legal that steals knowledge or related. However, if we delve into the matter we will see that this is not at all times the case.

There are a number of types of hackers, in addition to totally different capabilities for every of them. And, in fact, these are not at all times engaged in unlawful actions. Another frequent mistake is to confuse the aforementioned time period with that of the cracker. These are two totally different profiles with their very own traits for each. In all this we are going to deepen.

What is a hacker

The very first thing of all is to know what we imply after we discuss a hacker. It is a one who has sufficient laptop information to entry a sure system or system and make adjustments and modifications from inside.

These people have the operate of realizing the functioning of the info methods, the software program, the {hardware} and discover the most typical errors. This particular person should overcome the security taxes and search an enchancment in them. Therefore, as we will see, there are not at all times illicit functions on this endeavor. However, there are hackers who use their strategies for some unlawful function, though the principle goal is utterly the other.

History and origin

The origin of the determine of the hacker is related within the 1960s. At that point, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology acquired a microcomputer that generated nice curiosity in some college students of the academic entity. Through it, the boys started to work together by means of programming codes.

This laptop took a very long time to start out up and stayed on all evening. Therefore, the group of MIT college students had entry to it on a regular basis. In this manner, they started to experiment and made jokes amongst themselves that they got here to name hacks. Although the time period started for use extra broadly a few years later, it may be thought of that right now the determine was solid.

hacker and cracker

It was in 1984, by means of a work by Steven Levy, when the hacker ethic was thought of for the primary time. Through the e-book ‘Hackers: heroes of the pc revolution’, a philosophy of free entry to info and to the supply code of the software program. In the 90s, as a result of media publicity generated and the voices that provided controversy, the determine was progressively distorted till it reached considerably darkish beliefs.

Term and which means

The time period hack It has an origin linked to the which means of the phrase in English, which was used to outline a one who created furnishings with an ax. In laptop phrases, the phrase ‘hack’ is related to ‘chop’, which is the noise that firm technicians made when attempting to repair a faulty system: hitting them.

In Spain, for its half, the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language coined two meanings for the phrase hacker. On the one hand, it talks about Hacker when a person “illegally accesses third-party laptop methods to applicable them or acquire secret info.” But he additionally defines it as a “particular person with nice expertise in dealing with computer systems who investigates a laptop system to warn of failures and develop enchancment strategies.”

However, throughout the laptop tradition the makes use of are very broad. Thus, we will refer by extension to anybody who implements options for a sure system.

Differences between hacker and cracker

After repairing the origin of the time period, in addition to its which means, we will respect that the determine of the hacker is not at all times associated to unlawful actions. The RAE itself insists that we should differentiate it from the cracker. Putting the 2 figures in the identical bag is often a frequent mistake when, in actuality, there are notable variations.

Taking into consideration that each are launched in a international laptop system, the nice distinction lies within the goal pursued. While the hacker carries out the raid to confirm and enhance safety, the cracker seeks to bypass the established measures to sneak into the system with out permission and steal the info. With the data you could have obtained, you’ll be able to later blackmail third events, make it public or search monetary acquire. In any case, a cybercrime.

Hacker types

Once the differentiation between the 2 figures is established, the hacker world is a lot broader than we will think about. And it is that, in flip, there are totally different types profile linked to this pirate. These are organized based on their intentions, whether or not good or unhealthy, in addition to the precise operate they carry out.

Mainly, there are two massive teams: the white hat (white hat hackers) and black hat (black hat hackers). From right here, all of the others derive: grey, blue, pink, hacktivists

White hat

These are these associated to actions moral and that they don’t pursue any illicit function. They work for sure corporations and firms, a lot of them of huge world significance. Its final aim is safety of laptop methods. They go deep inside and search for safety flaws and bugs that should be improved. Surely it sounds acquainted to most of us Chema Alonso. He is a part of the group chart of the multinational Telefónica and could be on this group.

Black hat

Here we already enter marshy terrain. These types of hackers are the other of the earlier case and are identified for his or her actions immoral. They use their expertise and information to interrupt into safety methods and break them. They entry restricted websites, infect laptop networks and units, steal knowledge and spoof identities, and so on. They search to revenue and acquire revenue, though they may also be motivated by another legal function. Unlike the whites there are, these cybercriminals or crackers they are not licensed to assault the system.

Gray hat

The grey hat it is a combination of the earlier two. It is midway between the ethical and the illicit ends. In normal, they are not malicious, though some doubtful act might come out of them. They can break into a system with out the proprietor’s permission and, as soon as they uncover the fault, lend themselves to repair it. In the occasion that the corporate in query does not agree, it might publicly share its findings on-line and push others to behave.

Other types of hacker

As we’ve stated, along with these nice catalogs, there are different types of hackers with their very own peculiarities

  • Red hat: they goal to chase the black hat and forestall them from doing injury. If they handle to detect them, they are going to attempt to inflict a forceful response on you thru some malicious assault or entry your system to destroy it.
  • Blue hat– Your aim is to behave maliciously in the direction of a particular firm or particular person. They are pushed by revenge and don’t possess too many expertise, solely simply sufficient to trigger annoyance.
  • Gold hat: This sort of hacker makes use of the strategies to violate a laptop system and, thus, notify the proprietor of vulnerabilities. In normal, they break safety to check the established measures.
  • Green hat: these individuals are newcomers to the sector and search studying. They have a lot to supply and ask questions always, typically being reprimanded by the neighborhood. Although they don’t have a clear understanding of their actions, they’ll trigger issues
  • Script kiddie– Lacks too many expertise, though trying to revenue from hacking. They can do cybervandalism and unfold malicious software program with out being very clear in regards to the operation of the system


As we will think about, the time period comes from a combine between hacker Y activist. For many individuals, they could possibly be included within the black hat. Meanwhile, different members of the neighborhood combine them into the grey hat group. Everything can depend upon the ideological conception. Perform assaults and raids on purpose-driven methods clearly politicians.

Their actions are sponsored by what they contemplate freedom of expression and info. At instances, they are additionally lovers of conspiracy theories by governments and essential entities. We additionally know of instances of hacktivists who’ve perpetrated assaults towards the methods of terrorist teams such because the Islamic State.

hacker and cracker

It is a clearly upward motion that has turn into very trendy in recent times, particularly as a result of emergence of Anonymous. This group of hacktivists has turn into an absolute worldwide phenomenon. This motion, whose assaults have been primarily targeted on the community, has been rising. Currently, its actions additionally happen exterior the IT setting.

Hacktivists like Anonymous are typically uncovered to censorship insurance policies by entities and firms. In this case, Twitter, Facebook or YouTube acted towards stated people by blocking accounts, movies and different sources on their social media platforms.